Acid/ Earth Treatment
Finishing process for waxes involving
treatment with sulphuric acid, separation of acid sludge, and
subsequent neutralization of the wax with activated earth (clay).
Wax from which bees oniycombs are
constructed. It consists of a complex mixture, varying somewhat
according to source, predominant components being non-gylceride esters
of fatty acids- e.g. myricyl palmitate. Some paraffinic hydrocarbons
are present (e.g. 20 -13%).
The sticking together of individual
layers of wax-coated paper in storage (e.g. on a reel or in a stack of
sheets) due to welding of the adjacent wax coatings under the influence
of pressure and high ambient temperature. By this process a solid
paper/wax 'block' may be formed. Blocking may similarly occur with
candles in storage.
A heavy lubrication oil obtained forma
a residual oil (i.e. form which the more volatile lubrication oil
fractions have been removed by vacuum distillation) by, for example,
deasphalting, solvent refining de-waxing.
Bright Stock Slack Wax or
Bright Stock Crude Wax
The mixture of wax and oil produced
during de-waxing of Bright Stocks.
Formerly implied refined ozocerite:
nowadays may often refer to refined HMP wax manufactured from petroleum
or a mixture of such a wax with genuine ceresin.
See discussion under 'Meting Point'.
US term for slack wax.
A form of finishing process - namely
treatment of molten wax with activated earth (clay) to neutralize
acidity remaining from earlier sulphuric acid treatment and/or to
improve colour and reduce odour and taste of the finished wax, also to
remove traces of possibly harmful compounds (polycyclic aromatic
Refining treatment for waxes to
improve colour, reduce odour an taste and remove traces of potential
carcinogens, so that finished waxes comply with governmental
regulations for materials used in packaging food. Processes used:
acid/earth treatment (for paraffin waxes only), Percolation,
Synthetic hydrocarbon waxes made by
reacting carbon monoxide and hydrogen under the influence of a
catalyst; may have a very high metlting point - e.g. 210 degrees F (99
The soft, low melting point,
components removed during deoiling of a slack wax (or other waxy
feedstock fraction) to produce a de-oiled wax. Foot oil consists of a
mixture of oily and solid waxy components, the latter contain a
relatively high proportion of branched chain paraffins (iso-paraffins)
and can be used as a source of 'iso-wax'.
Paraffin Waxes – usually ASTM
– B87 is used; this in fact indicates the setting point.
ASTM-D938 and ASTM-D127 may also be used and for an unmodified
microcrystalline paraffin wax there is normally little difference
between the values indicated (2 or 3 degrees F only).
Microcystalline Waxes - for these ASTM
–D87 is not applicable, and ASTM-D938 (congealing point methods)
or ASTM-D127 (drop melting point method) must be used. There may be an
appreciable difference (5-10 degrees F) between values determined by
these tow methods.
Petroleum waxes derived from short
residues (vacuum distillation residues) or by processing tank bottom
wax or sucker rod wax. Typical grades would show a much finer crystal
structure than paraffin waxes and the ability to form smooth mixtures
with oil or solvent. The lower melting grades (e.g. in range 135-145
degrees F) are very flexible and adhesive, and contain a wide range of
molecular types including a high proportion of 'non-normal' paraffins.
This term is usually applied to wax mined from the earth as such i.e.
ozocerite, and also to its refined form ceresine. Strictly speaking the
term may also be applied to any wax of mineral origin i.e. petroleum
waxes, montan wax, lignite wax, peat wax.
Montan Wax (Lignite Wax)
Wax obtained by solvent extraction of lignite (brown coal). It consists
of non-glyceride carboxylic acid esters, free acids and resines. With
oils or solvents smooth pastes are formed (i.e. behavior is
microcrystalline in type). The wax is hard and is much used in
paste-type polishes, electrical insulation compositions etc.
Saturated hydrocarbons with
molecules containing carbon atoms linked in a straight (i.e.
unbranched) chain. Paraffin (i.e. distillated) waxes consist mainly of
normal paraffins in the range C18 to C40.
Hydrocarbons with molecules
containing a chain of carbon atoms which is not entirely straight, but
which may include one or more of the following features:
(a) Branched carbon chains (i.e. side-chains of carbon atoms attached
to the main chain).
(b) Naphthene ring structures (i.e. cycloparaffinic rings; rings of
saturated carbon atoms containing no double bonding).
(c) Aromatic ring structures.
Microcrystalline waxes contain a relatively high proportion so such
Low molecular weight grades of polyethylene having waxy properties.
Some of these grades are produced especially for use as wax modifiers
and for applications requiring a waxy material.
A mineral oil product, which has been
refined by chemical or physical processes. E.g. solvent extraction of a
lubricating oil fraction results in an extracted oil- the 'raffinate' -
and an ' extract' containing the more aromatic materials etc, which
have been removed.
Wax which has been de-oiled but has
not been given any finishing treatment. The term ' raw wax' is much
used in the USA.
A measure of quantity of paper or
paperboard :UK- 1 Ream refers to 500 sheets of paper of type and size
to be specified. There are thus several definitions in use according to
the end-use of the paper concerned.
USA- N. America Standard Ream is 500
sheets each 2 feet x3 feet i.e. x 30 inches.
US Ream D C ( Double Crown) is 500
sheets each sheet being 20 inches x 30 inches.
Petroleum wax derived from the residue (i.e. non-volatile portion)
after vacuum distillation of a crude oil. The wax may also be regarded
as derived from a ' short residue'. Such waxes are microcrysstalline in
A paraffin wax which has been partially de-oiled in the initial stages
of the sweating process. The term was originally used for waxes with
oil contents in the range 2 to 6.
Further removal of oil down to around 1% followed by finishing
treatment, gives 'semi-refined' paraffin wax.
In solvent de-oiling processes there is no corresponding stage to
'scale wax' and the nearest equivalent would be a 'semi-refined' wax.
Wax derived from a high boiling lubricating oil distillate – i.e.
from a medium machine oil fraction (MMO, e.g. HVI 160) rather than from
spindle oil (HVI 55-65) or light machine oil (HVI 95- 155) fractions.
Such wax (sometimes termed 'intermediate wax') has certain
characteristics of both typical paraffin and microcrystalline waxes.
Paraffin wax with oil content around
1% wt which has not necessarily been finished to the standards of
color, odor, taste, and freedom from potential carcinogens necessary
for waxes to be used for food packaging purposes. Such waxes are
commonly used for candle manufacture etc.
See discussion under ' Melting point'
Wax derived by distillation from
oil-bearing shale-e.g. Scottish shale.
The liquid draining out of the wax
during the sweating process is termed 'sweat oil' - the fractions of
sweat oil produced in the early stages are also sometimes termed 'foots
oil' and are usually discarded; the later fractions of sweat oil may be
recycled through the sweating process.
Materials of ' waxy' appearance and
properties (See ' Wax') manufactured by chemical synthesis. Such waxes
may belong to a variety of chemical types, e.g. hydrocarbons, alcohols,
polyethylene glycols, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons etc.
Synthetic hydrocarbons waxes may be
produced by the Fisher-Tropsch process and also by polyethylene
Synthetic waxy alcohols may be made by
the OXO process.
Tank Bottom Wax
Wax separating and accumulating on the
bottoms of tanks used for storing waxy crude oils. On issuing from the
well the crude may be at an elevated temperature and on cooling the
higher melting waxes tend to solidify.
Tank bottom waxes are high melting and microcrystalline in type.
Wax, which has been de-oiled, but has not received any finishing
treatment (also termed 'raw wax').
Wax derived from some part of a plant,
most commonly from leaves and/ or stems. Typical examples are carnauba
wax, candelilla wax, ouricuri wax, flax wax, and sugarcane wax.
Vegetable waxes are complex mixtures usually containing a considerable
proportion of non-glyceride fatty acid esters; candelilla wax unusual
in containing around 50% of high melting paraffin hydrocarbons in
addition to non-glyceride esters.
Vegetable waxes are commonly of very
high melting point and are used e.g. to impart gloss to polish
Term applied in ancient times to
beeswax alone; in modern times may be applied to any substance having '
wax-like' properties: i.e. vegetable waxes, insect waxes, animal waxes,
mineral waxes, synthetic waxes.
Term given in the paper industry to paper, paperboard or plastic film
etc, processed through a machine (e.g. wax coating machine, or other
machine performing some operation) and supplied as a continuous strip
from a reel. The term is used in making a distinction between material
supplied from a reel and material supplied in individual sheets - e.g.
sheets stamped out for individual cartons etc.